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"Now They Come With Respect"

In the remote, arid, northwestern corner of Namibia, a Himba headman and his councilors mete out a punishment to two young men who used an old rifle to shoot a gemsbok. The headman gives them a warning, and their fathers are fined two goats each. The community's game guard, Ngevi Tjikuta, had tracked and caught the two offenders a few weeks earlier. later in the month, government nature conservator Chris Eyre and the headman decide whether to take this relatively minor case any further.

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10/31/1999

The Namibian government, with Angolan consent, is in the process of choosing a site on the Kunene River, the border between Namibia and Angola, to build a new hydroelectric dam. The Namibian government is enamored with the Epupa Falls for the location of their new dam, and consequently the proposed dam is now the center of immense controversy.

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After Foraging: The Omaheke San

Far from their romantic image, most San people today live in circumstances similar to those of the Omaheke Ju/’hoansi, who have worked on White-owned farms since the 1930s. They remain one of Namibia’s most oppressed minorities.

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Anthropology and Apartheid - The Rise of Military Ethnology in South Africa

The use of anthropologists by military forces did not begin in Vietnam or with Project Camelot in Latin America.

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Armed Struggle and Indigenous People

The two CSQ issues on militarization and indigenous peoples are intended to acquaint our readers with the important role militarization plays in the lives of even the most isolated tribal groups. The articles contained in these issues focus mostly on the consequences of shooting wars and on the increasing number of groups involved in them, directly or indirectly. This increasingly militarized world also affects the lives of indigenous peoples in a number of other important ways.

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Caught in the Crossfire: The Caprivi Strip

The relatively peaceful Caprivi calm was shattered in August 1999 when dissident Caprivians attacked the Namibian town of Katima Mulimo, the capital of East Caprivi. While not a party to the dispute, the Caprivi Khwe have been drawn into it, attacked by the local rebels and their UNITA backers as government supporters, and attacked in turn by the Namibian Defense Forces (NDF) and the Special Security Force (SSF) as rebel collaborators.

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Death Blow to the Bushmen

A proposed game park in Namibia would force the last Ju/wasi off their traditional lands.

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Decentralization and Development Among the Ju/Wasi, Namibia

An examination of the Ju/Wasi San in the eastern Bushmanland area of northeastern Namibia back in 1980 would have revealed the grave problems faced by these people. Almost 1,000 people were crowded into a settlement at Tsum!kwe, an administrative center established by the South African government in 1960. The Ju/Wasi, as were many contemporary indigenous populations in modern nation-states, were poverty-stricken, malnourished and plagued by severe socio-economic difficulties.

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Ecotourism, Sustainable Development, and Cultural Survival: Protecting Indigenous Culture and Land through Ecotourism

As the earth approaches the next century, communities are increasingly linked through travel, communications, and the consumer culture. Globalization and environmental exploitation has left almost no part of the globe unaffected by human activity. As we invade every last corner of the planet in search of more resources to exploit, one wonders it if is possible to stop time and re-evaluate our actions.

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There are probably more refugees in the world today than at any other time in modern history. Nearly half of the world's 10 to 13 million refugees are scattered throughout the African continent. WHAT IS REFUGEE? According to the 1951 Geneva Convention a refugee is any person who:

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Facing the Challenge of HIV/AIDS

The countries of southern Africa today have the highest rates of HIV/AIDS in the world. The United Nations figures for June 2000 show a seropositive rate among adults of 19.54 percent in Namibia, 19.94 percent in South Africa, and a staggering 35.8 percent in Botswana. The epidemic threatens to undo the development gains of recent decades and cause incalculable hardship and suffering among the ordinary peoples of the region.

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Indian Girls Make the Best Maids

FOR more than thirty years, the Amuesha Indian community of Miraflores (Oxapampa, Peru) has provided young girls as servants to neighboring haciendas and the homes of the region's lumber barons. During the past ten years, as the demand for servants in the urban areas has grown, more and more Amuesha girls have been taken to Lima to work in middle class homes.

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Indicators from Ju/'hoan Bushmen in Namibia

Namibia, formally called Southwest Africa, was once colony of both Germany and Britain and then part of South African until 1990. With Independence, the incoming majority-rule government faced a stiff challenge of establishing new democratic relations of power from the complex colonial legacy of racial the ethnic stratification.

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Jai||om Trust in the Hai||om Trust

At the beginning of colonization (c. 1885), Hai||om people occupied large tracts of north-central Namibia, from Etosha Pan eastward to the copper mountains around the present-day mining town of Tsumeb. This central position had, and still has, important implications for the history of relations between Hai||om and their neighbors. Hai||om access to copper was valued by the Owambo.

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Land Crisis: A San Perspective

Only a small proportion of Namibia’s 38,000 San retain management rights to their ancestral lands. The vast majority, though still residing on the land of their ancestors, have been dispossessed of their natural resources and now live on land managed by others. Only in Tsumkwe District in the Otjozondjupa Region do the San, in this case the Ju|’hoansi and the !Kung, retain partial rights to manage their ancestral land and natural resources.

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Land, Language, and Leadership

When the light-skinned people came, they brought new things. They took the Jul' hoansi and they all went to live together in Tjum!kui where the white people taught them work and gave them white people's food. It happened sometimes that they would suddenly leave their work and go and look for bushfoods, but the white people wore them down and eventually they gave in. Some worked and worked and at the end of a month they got five shillings....

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Open Letter on the Ju/Wasi of Bushmanland

The Ju/Wasi people of Bushmanland need help and support to keep their land and develop a better way of life for themselves and their children. Picture a people… * who have lost 70 % of the land they had occupied for at least 1,000 and perhaps as long as 23,000 years… * who were the last independent, self-sufficient hunters and gatherers in Southern Africa - still practicing their ancient way of life only 20 years ago…

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People of the Great White Lie?

John Paul Myburgh's film People of the Great Sandface (1986) has apparently been well received in Britain and Europe and hailed by respected, well-informed and critical South African media commentators as a breakthrough in South African ethnographic film. Yet People of the Great Sandface raises troubling questions, not only about how we portray the human dimension of southern Africa, but about the very nature of the academic enterprise known as visual anthropology.

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Removals, Politics, and Human Rights

The Central Kalahari Game Reserve (CKGR) had its beginnings in 1961 when George Silberbauer, the Bushman Survey officer, convinced the British colonial government of Bechuanaland to set aside some 52,347 square kilometers as a park in which San people and wildlife could coexist. The Central Kalahari is a stark but beautiful landscape of undulating savanna dotted with pans and dissected by fossil river valleys.

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Rendering the Land Visible

I am standing alone by my tent in West Caprivi, Namibia. I am several weeks into fieldwork for my master’s thesis, the first step in what will become long-term work with the San. The evening sky is strange, blanketed with haze, yet still full of light. It is very quiet; even the birds are silent. The trans-Caprivi “highway” cuts through the bush just 40 yards away, flanked by white-yellow grass that looks soft enough to sleep on.

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Societies in Danger

1. ANISHINABE The Anishinabe, who inhabit a region often called "the wild rice bowl," face two threats to their cultural and economical relationship with wild rice. The first is the degradation by industrial society of the balanced ecosystem of marshes, lakes, and streams that has supported their culture for centuries. Pollution is reducing yields and destroying natural rice beds.

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Stories From Home:<br>San Won IPR and Land Rights Victories

Indigenous Activists Tell Cultural Survival What The Decade Meant To Them The San of southern Africa have made important steps during the International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People.

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The !Kung San: A Labor History

South Africa's system of exploiting Namibian labor through the migrant contract system has been justifiably condemned by politicians and academics. In this system, male workers leave their families in the labor reservoirs of Ovamboland and Kavango and take lengthy contracts to the area of white settlement. There they are employed, often under atrocious conditions, for periods ranging from 6 to 24 months at salaries which would barely qualify as "pocket money."

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The !Xu San: Poverty & Tension

San were the earliest occupants of present north-central Namibia. The Ovambo gradually settled and established kingdoms there, though the buffer zone between the San and Ovambo was preserved for a long time. (Williams, 1994) Studies show that the San played an important role in Ovambo society—the men as trading partners, the women as wives. The San were said to have exerted influence over Ovambo kingdoms through San women who were wives to kings of several Ovambo dynasties.

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The "Success" of San Music

There exist as many different musical legacies as there are different populations of San people; nevertheless, they share many traits. Their music is characterized by complex contrapuntic polyphonies based on the superposition of different voices, each with divergent melody and rhythm. From these multiple voices emerges the yodelling procedure, which alternates between chest voice and head voice.

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The Hagahai: Isolation and Health Status in Papua New Guinea

The Hagahai are a recently contacted group of seminomadic hunter-horticulturalists living in the fringe highlands of Madang Province in Papua New Guinea. Although occasional explorers and miners probably walked through their territory in the Schrader Mountains as early as the 1930s and several attempts were made to census them during the 1970s, the Hagahai effectively remained hidden from mission and government influence until the 1980s.

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The Homecoming of the Kagga Kamma Bushmen

"Our ancestors were here and now so are we," said Dawid Kruiper as his kin and following of 30-odd "stone-age huntergatheres" emerged from two minibuses, to the delight of journalists and photographers there to record the event. On January 15, 1991, after an absence of two centuries, the Bushmen had returned to the western Cape Province of South Africa.

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The Hunter-Gatherer Myth in Southern Africa

Preserving Nature or Culture? It would be a biological crime if we allowed such a peculiar race to die out, because it is a race which looks more like a baboon than a baboon itself does...We have so far got about 20 who are just about genuine...It is our intention to leave them there (in the park) and to allow them to hunt with bows and arrows but without dogs. We look upon them as part of the fauna of the country.

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The Kalahari Peoples Fund

Since its inception in 1973, KPF has responded to several requests for help made by San, Nama, and other rural southern African communities by raising funds and providing technical and advisory assistance. San and other Kalahari peoples are having to cope with rapidly changing conditions as populations have grown and development programs have expanded.

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The Osire/M'Kata Refugee Crisis

Since Namibia’s independence in 1990, the long-running civil war in neighbouring Angola has produced a steady southward flow of refugees. Most of them have been settled at Osire, Namibia’s largest refugee camp, located on a former White-owned farm in the central part of the country. Under the auspices of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), the population of Osire had swollen to over 20,000.

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